Friday, August 11, 2017

Harinama-chintamani, Chapter 15, Bhajana Pranali, Part I

I posted this on-line a long time ago, but it has undergone a bit of revision. As far as I know this is supposed to be getting published by Mandala, but I haven't heard anything for a long time.

Bhaktivinoda Thakur made notes on HNC. Those are included in the text, but are separated from the verses and the translations. My own footnotes are separated from the text and are colored purple.




Bhajana Pranali


gadāi gaurāṅga jaya jaya nityānanda |
jaya sītānātha jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda ||1||

All glories to Gadadhar and Gauranga!
All glories to Nityananda Prabhu!
All glories to the husband of Sita Devi, Advaita Prabhu!
All glories to all of Gauranga’s devotees!

saba chāḍi hari-nāma je kare bhajana |
jaya jaya bhāgyavān sei mahājana ||2||

Those who renounce everything to commit themselves fully to chanting
are great devotees and truly fortunate. May they be forever victorious!


prabhu bale hari-dāsa tumi bhakti-bale |
peyecha sakala jñāna e jagatī-tale ||3||

The Lord said, “My dear Hari Das, on the strength of your devotion,
you have become conversant with all knowledge on this earth.

sarva-veda nāce dekhi tomāra jihvāya |
sakala siddhānta dekhi tomāra kathāya ||4||#/C

I see that all the Vedic revelations dance upon your tongue
and that your speech is replete with correct understanding.

Mahaprabhu says to Hari Das: "You have already spoken to me about the Supreme Person, the jiva, Maya, the pure name of the Lord, Namabhasa and Namaparadh, all in accordance with the Vedic conclusions. Therefore, it is perfectly correct to say that the Vedas dance gleefully upon your tongue.” Now that He has heard all the above from Hari Das, Mahaprabhu will inquire into rasa, which is the ultimate prize achieved through the knowledge and practice of the Holy Name.


An inquiry into rasa


ebe spaṣṭa bala nāma-rasa ki prakāra |
ki rūpe labhibe jīva tāhe adhikāra ||5||

“Now please clearly instruct Me in the rasa of the Holy Name:
How can a jiva become qualified to experience it?”

haridāsa mahā-preme kare nivedana |
tomāra preraṇā-bale kariba varṇana ||6||

Hari Das then very lovingly made his submission to the Lord—
I shall describe all these things, confident that You will inspire me.


Rasa-tattva


śuddha-tattva para-tattva yei vastu siddha |
rasa nāme sarva-vede tāhāi prasiddha ||7||

That substance we have previously called the supreme and purest truth
is also celebrated in all the Vedas by the name “rasa” or nectar. (FN1)


(FN1) The reference to the Vedas is to the famous phrase in the Taittiriya Upanishad (2.7)—raso vai saḥ. yaṁ hy evāyaṁ labdhvānandī: “The Supreme Truth is rasa. On attaining Him, one becomes truly joyful.” See the glossary for more about rasa. More about viśeṣa see the glossary.

The aesthetic experience ordinarily described as rasa in Sanskrit works of rhetoric is in fact mundane. It is not the true rasa, but its perverted reflection. Matter is made up of twenty-four elements, beyond which lies the spiritual nature of pure being. This transcendental existence is the true rasa. Those who take satisfaction in the self transcend the material existence, but even so are unable to recognize the wonderful varieties that exist in transcendence; they are thus said to be dried up, or “devoid of rasa.” The eternal rasa is found in the transcendental variegatedness of the spiritual world.



sei se akhaṇḍa rasa para-brahma tattva |
ananta ānanda-dhāma carama mahattva ||8||

This one and undivided rasa principle is known as the Supreme Brahman,
the abode of limitless bliss and the ultimate understanding of God’s glory.

śakti śaktimān rūpe viśeṣa tāhāya |
bheda nāi bheda sama darśanete bhāya ||9||

This single undivided truth manifests as Shakti and Shaktiman,
which though not separate truths, appear to be so through the action of viśeṣa.

Hari Das here begins to explain how rasa comes to be experienced. The Supreme Brahman, the indivisible substance in pure being, is naturally manifested in the forms of Shakti and Shaktiman, as energy and energetic. The Supreme Energetic is impossible to perceive or understand [whereas His energies are visible], but there is no substantial distinction between the two. Every kind of apparent distinction within the One Truth is caused by the principle known as viśeṣa.(FN2) The Energetic appears eternally as the completely independent Supreme Person. His Shakti reveals His powers. This Shakti manifests in three kinds of phenomena: Chit, Maya and Jiva.

śaktimān sudurlakṣya śakti prakāśinī |
trividha śaktira kriyā viśva-vikāśinī ||10||

The Shaktiman cannot be perceived except through His Shakti,
which is divided into the three functions that manifest all the universes.


The Lord’s chit potency reveals the Supreme Substance


cic-chakti-svarūpe prakāśaye vastu rūpa |
vastu nāma vastu dhāma tat-kriyā svarūpa ||11||

The Lord’s chit potency reveals the form of the Supreme Substance,
His name, His abode, His pastimes and His true identity.

kṛṣṇa se parama vastu śyāma tāra rūpa |
kṛṣṇa-dhāma golokādi līlāra svarūpa ||12||

That Supreme Substance is Krishna.
His form is of exquisite dark complexion;
His abodes and the sites of His pastimes
are Goloka and the other Vaikuntha worlds.

nāma dhāma rūpa guṇa līlā ādi yata |
sakala-i akhaṇḍādvaya jñāna antargata ||13||

Krishna’s name, abode, form, qualities and pastimes and so on
are all included within the indivisible, nondual consciousness.

vicitratā yata saba parā śakti karma |
kṛṣṇa dharmī parā śakti kṛṣṇa nitya karma ||14||

Whatever varieties are found there are the work of Krishna’s higher potency,
He is the master and supreme actor; the higher potency is His eternal work.

dharma-dharmī bheda nāi akhaṇḍa advaye |
vicitra viśeṣa mātra sac-cin-nilaye ||15||

One and indivisible, there is no true difference between Creator and creation;
yet He is characterized by transcendental variety in the spiritual world.

Krishna is the person (dharmī) who is characterized by certain functions (or dharmas). His supreme or internal potency is this dharma, or function. There are three kinds of difference, internal, external, and functional. None of these distinctions apply in the case of the Supreme Person and His functions. Nevertheless, the principle known as viśeṣa creates the appearance of difference or distinctions, which are manifest in the spiritual world.


The nature of Krishna’s Maya Shakti


sei śakti-chāyā eka māyā saṁjñā pāya |
bahiraṅga viśva sṛje kṛṣṇera icchāya ||16||

The shadow of the spiritual potency is given the name Maya, “illusion.”
She has created this material world at Lord Krishna’s behest.

Maya is only the shadow of Krishna’s supreme, internal potency. Because she is simply the shadow of this energy, Maya is also called the “external energy” of the Lord. She creates this material universe, which is also known as “the abode of the Goddess” (devī-dhāma) under the direction of the Lord.


The Jiva Shakti


bhedābheda-mayī jīva-śakti jīva-gaṇe |
tāṭasthye prakāśe kṛṣṇa sevāra kāraṇe ||17||

Both one and different from Krishna is Jiva Shakti, the individual souls.
Krishna manifests them as His marginal potency so they can serve Him.

The Lord then manifests the individual souls or jivas, who are the marginal portion of His supreme potency. The jivas are also a particular aspect of Lord Krishna’s Shakti and are therefore meant to serve Him.


Jivas find themselves in two different situations


nitya-baddha nitya-mukta jīva dvi-prakāra |
nitya mukte nitya kṛṣṇa sevā adhikāra ||18||
nitya baddha māyā guṇe karaye saṁsāra |
bahirmukha antarmukha bhede dvi-prakāra ||19||

There are two types of jiva—eternally conditioned or eternally liberated. The eternally liberated jiva is always fit to render service to Krishna,
but the conditioned soul is tied up in Maya’s ropes, taking repeated births.
Conditioned souls are of two kinds, either inclined inwardly or outwardly.

Some of the eternally conditioned souls are inwardly inclined, in other words, they make an attempt to find God. The rest are all externally inclined, meaning that their interests lie in everything but Krishna.

antarmukha sādhu-saṅge kṛṣṇa-nāma pāya |
kṛṣṇa-nāma-prabhāvete kṛṣṇa-dhāme yāya ||20||

The inwardly inclined search out saintly association and find the Name,
then through the power of Krishna’s name attain His supreme abode.

The most fortunate among the inward-facing jivas come into the association of devotees and take initiation in the Holy Name. Those who are not so fortunate take up the paths of ritual or philosophical speculation, either worshiping numerous gods and goddesses or aspiring to merge into the impersonal Brahman.


Rasa is the true nature of the Name


nāma ta akhaṇḍa rasa kalikā tāhāra |
kṛṣṇa ādi saṁjñā-rūpe viśvete pracāra ||21||

The Holy Name is the one unbroken rasa; its budding flower is propagated
within this universe in the form of the Lord’s epithets like “Krishna."

Being of the spiritual nature, or pure goodness, the Supreme Substance is unbroken nectar, or rasa. By His mercy, it appears in the material world in the form of names like Krishna, like a flowerbud inside which the nectarean flower is waiting to fully manifest or blossom.


Rasa is the essence of the Lord’s form


svalpa sphuṭa kalikā se rūpa manohara |
śrī-goloke vṛndāvane śrī-śyāmasundara ||22||

When this bud first starts to open, one sees the Lord’s enchanting form,
the beautifully blackish Shyamasundar in Goloka Vrindavan.

As one enters into a direct experience of the Holy Name, one begins to get a realization of Krishna’s different transcendental forms, all of which are enchanting.


Rasa is the essence of the Lord’s qualities


saurabhita kalikā se catuḥ-ṣaṣṭhi-guṇa |
prakāśe nāmera tattva jānena nipuṇa ||23||

Just as the opening bud starts to release its fragrance, the Holy Name
reveals the Lord’s sixty-four qualities; learned experts know this truth.

As the flowering bud opens further, one can smell its fragrance. Similarly, as the Holy Name reveals itself to the chanter, he or she becomes aware of Krishna’s sixty-four qualities.


Rasa is the essence of the Lord’s lila


pūrṇa prasphuṭita nāma kusuma sundara |
aṣṭa-kāla nitya-līlā prakṛtira para ||24||

When the bud of the Name has blossomed completely as a beautiful flower,
it is Krishna’s eternal cycle of daily pastimes, completely beyond matter.

When the flower of the Holy Name is fully bloomed, Krishna’s eternal cycle of daily pastimes, the aṣṭa-kālīya-līlā, even though beyond the material nature, appears in this world. (FN3)


(FN3) Bhaktivinoda Thakur uses this metaphor elsewhere, such as in the following verse from Çaraṇāgati, also quoted in chapter 25 of Jaiva Dharma


premera kalikā nāma adbhuta rasera dhāma
hena bala karaẏe prakāśa |
īṣat bikaśita haṣā dekhāẏa nija rūpa guṇa
citta hari laẏa kṛṣṇa pāśa ||6||

The Name is a flowerbud, the amazing abode of rasa.
It manifests so much transcendental strength.
When even slightly revealed, it shows me its form and attributes.
It steals my mind and takes it to Krishna’s side.

pūrṇa bikaśita hajñā braje more yāẏa lajñā
dekhāẏa mora svarūpa bilāsa |
more siddha deha diẏā kṛṣṇa pāśe rākhe giẏā
e dehera kare sarba-nāśa ||7||

When the Name is fully revealed, it takes me directly to Vraja,
where it shows me my role in the eternal pastimes.
It gives me my spiritual body and places me by Krishna’s side,
destroying this material body completely.

(Kṛṣṇa-nāma dhare kata bala?)




The nature of devotion


jīve nāma kṛpodaye svarūpa hlādinī |
saṁvitera sāra-yutā bhakti-svarūpiṇī ||25||

When the Holy Name’s mercy to the jiva rises, the Lord’s pleasure potency
combines with the essence of His saṁvit śakti in the form of pure devotion...

When the individual spirit soul attains the Lord’s mercy, the hladini shakti and samvit shakti combine to become devotional service personified.


The workings of bhakti


āvirbhūta haye nāme prasphuṭita kari |
rasera sāmagrī prakāśaye sarveśvarī ||26||

... and descends, making the Holy Name blossom fully. Then,
this supreme goddess reveals all ingredients needed to experience rasa fully.


The potency that rules all becomes manifest and reveals all the ingredients of rasa through the medium of Krishna’s holy name.


viśuddha cinmaya jīva labhiyā svarūpa |
sei rase praveśe ei aparūpa ||27||

Completely purified, the transcendental jiva attains his spiritual identity,
and enters into that divine rasa. This is wonderful indeed.

By the power of devotion, the individual soul attains his own original spiritual form. He then enters the rasa-tattva as revealed by this devotional potency.


The ingredients of rasa: Props


rasera vibhāva sei tattva ālambana |
tad-āśraya bhakta, tad-viṣaya kṛṣṇa-dhana ||28||

The media through which rasa is experienced include the props of love,
manifest as the vessel of love, the devotee, and the object of love, Krishna.

The fundamental ingredient mood of rasa is the sthāyi-bhāva, which also goes by the name of rati. This rati becomes rasa when combined with four other elements also known as bhāvas. These five elements taken together are called the ingredients of rasa or the media through which rasa is experienced. They are the vibhāvas (the causes of emotion), anubhāvas (signs or indicators of emotion through look or gesture), sāttvika-bhāvas (ecstatic symptoms), and vyabhicāri- or sañcāri-bhāvas (transitory emotions). The vibhāvas are divided into two categories: the ālambanas (the props or foundations of love) and uddīpanas (igniters). The ālambanas are of two kinds: viṣaya (the object of love) and āśraya (the vessel of love or lover). The lover will always be a devotee of Lord Krishna, who is the eternal object of love. The uddīpanas are those things that stimulate the feelings of love, such as Krishna’s form and qualities. When the ālambana and uddīpana vibhāvas act on each other, the result is the appearance of various deliberate acts that are symptomatic of love (anubhāva). As these become intensified, they produce the spontaneous ecstasies known as sāttvikas. At the same time, the various transitory emotions or sañcāri-bhāva also appear.

nāma kare avirata bhakta mahāśaya |
kṛpā kari rūpa-guṇa-līlāra udaya ||29||

To the great devotee who chants the Holy Name constantly,
the Holy Name mercifully reveals the Lord’s form, qualities and pastimes.


The causes of rasa: igniters


uddīpana kṛṣṇa-rūpa guṇādika yata |
ālambana uddīpana vibhāve saṁyuta ||30||

The igniters (FN4) of rasa include Krishna’s form and all His qualities.
Both the personal props and igniters are the eternal causes of rasa.


(FN4) uddīpanas.



From emotional causes to effects


vibhāva sampūrṇa haile anubhāva haya |
premera vikāra saba śuddha prema-maya ||31||

When one experiences the causes of rasa fully, one starts to feel its effects.
These include all prema’s transformations, all of which are immersed in love.


The dominant mood becomes rasa when the causes produce both spontaneous and deliberate effects on the devotee


sañcārī sāttvika krame udita ha-ile |
sthāyībhāva rasa haya sarva-śāstra bale ||32||

When deliberate acts of love and spontaneous emotional reactions are added
to the dominant mood, it becomes rasa; so say all the scriptures.

Here the functioning of rasa may be compared to the working of a juice-extracting machine. Sthāyi-bhāva, which is also known as rati or the permanent emotion, is the honey. Once the machine starts moving by the combined energy of the four bhāvas, the permanent emotion (sthāyi-bhāva) is converted into rasa. In this metaphor, the lover, i.e., the devotee of Lord Krishna, is the taster of the nectar of rasa.(FN5)


(FN5) There is some difficulty in understanding what Bhaktivinoda means here when he says, “Rasa is like a machine. Sthayi bhava, also known as rati, is the madhu (honey), which then becomes rasa.” The image seems to be that of a machine meant for extracting juice from sugarcane. Since the juice is extracted from sugar cane, the metaphor is appropriate. But to say that the sthāyi bhāva is also the axle seems to be an error of some knd, so we have rejected this reading.

Rasa theory comes out of an attempt by Indian poeticians to understand the workings of art on its audience. Rupa Goswami adopts the same language to explain the feelings experienced by devotees, so the devotee is eventually obliged to understand the terminology used here. According to classical rasa theory, everyone has the potential for feeling particular sentiments, which are universal. These potentials for feeling are the sthāyī bhāvas of the mundane rasa theory. When the other ingredients are present, as in a play or piece of music or literature, they evoke this potential for feeling and create rasa, which some call the aesthetic experience, or simply, “sentiment.”

In classical theory, the person who feels the rasa is called a sahṛdaya, or “appreciative audience.” Even in this classical theory, which is treated by devotees as mundane, an appreciative audience must have a certain culture, be self-controlled and have an attentive mind (i.e., “be in the mode of goodness”) in order to be able to feel the finer sentiments of high art.

In the devotional rasa theory, Rupa redefines the sthāyi-bhāvas as particular fixed relations to Krishna. Just as nearly everyone given the right circumstances can access the universal emotions or sthāyī bhāvas in mundane works of literature or drama, all people possess the potential for devotion to Krishna. However, a devotee must have the further culture of devotion in order to be able to experience bhakti rasa. This is why the specific term “rati” is used to show that love in one of these particular relations with Krishna must be present for rasa to be experienced. By hearing love poetry about Krishna, anyone may feel the arousal of the universal human emotions, but without having cultivated a specific loving relation with Krishna, these feelings remain within the category of mundane rasa. This is why the concept of sahridaya does not play a big part in Rupa Goswami’s theory of bhakti rasa; bhakti rasa is not merely an artistic or aesthetic experience, nor is it a mundane sentiment.

Bhaktivinoda clearly says that the bhakta who experiences rasa must be an ashraya of love. Even before attaining the higher levels of devotion, the bhakta may experience various elements of rasa to different degrees. Ultimately the experience of bhakti rasa comes vicariously through the nitya siddha associates of the Lord. Through identification with one of Krishna’s eternal associates, devotees at first experience something akin to the mundane rasa experience. However, once they attain the stage of love for Krishna, they no longer need any special external stimulus to experience rasa because they have internalized all the ingredients of rasa through the culture of the Lord’s holy name, form, qualities and pastimes. At the highest stage, prema or love for Krishna is like an ocean in which everything is a stimulus to increased love and rasa.




The process for experiencing rasa


sei rasa sarva-sāra siddhi-sāra jāni |
parama puruṣa artha sarva-śāstre māni ||33||

I know that this rasa to be the essence of all creation, the highest achievement;
I accept the verdict of the scriptures: it is the ultimate goal of human life.

Of all rasas, the rasas of Vraja are the highest. They are the highest goal of life for the individual spirit souls. The four traditional goals of life are piety, economic development, sense gratification, and impersonal liberation. These four goals of life, piety, economic development, sense gratification, and impersonal liberation eventually lead to rasa, which is the highest goal of life. A person who is completely liberated is eligible to taste the rasas.

bhakty-unmukha jīva śuddha-gurura kṛpāya |
śrī-yugala brahma-nāma saubhāgyete pāya ||34||

By the mercy of a pure-devotee guru, a soul eager for devotional service
has the good fortune to be given the spiritual names of the Divine Couple.

Of all introspective souls, those who have turned toward the practice of devotional service are the best. It is only as the result of many, many past pious deeds that anyone takes to the path of devotional service. When faith awakens in such a person, he naturally comes into contact with a pure devotee spiritual master (śuddha-sādhu-guru). Then by this spiritual master’s mercy, he is given the Maha Mantra, which contains the names of the Divine Couple. (FN6)


(FN6) See Appendix 1


tulasī-mālāya nāma saṅkhyā kari’ smare |
athavā kīrtana kare parama ādare ||35||

He then remembers a prescribed number of Names on a tulasi mala,
or else he chants the Names aloud with great love and respect.

Even though someone has faith, he may at first encounter obstacles in the shape of materialistic engagements. The guru entrusts the disciple with a spiritual practice so that he can overcome such obstacles and find strength in chanting. This means worshiping the Lord by either chanting aloud or silently remembering the Holy Name on a rosary of tulasi beads. This process of worship is the secret to all success. One should therefore first spend a little time in a secluded place chanting alone with single-minded concentration. Gradually one increases the number of Holy Names he chants until he achieves constancy in chanting, which is inevitably accompanied by the falling away of obstacles like sense desire.

There are two broad streams of devotional practice: one has the tendency to engage in Deity worship (archan), while the other is in the tendency to engage in chanting (kirtan) and meditation (smaran). Though both of these inclinations are worthwhile, the activities of chanting and meditation are prevalent amongst the most fully committed Vaishnavas in the renounced orders. Many of these great souls meditate on one portion of their daily number of Holy Names on their japa beads and chant the rest aloud. The advantage of chanting aloud is that one simultaneously performs three kinds of devotion: chanting, hearing, and meditation or remembering.

eka grantha saṅkhyā kari ārambhibe nāma |
krame tina lakṣa smari pūre manaskāma ||36||

One should begin by chanting one grantha (four rounds) of Holy Names,
then gradually increase to three lakhs, whereby all desires will be fulfilled.

saṅkhyā madhye kichu nāma karibe kīrtana |
tāte sarvendriya sphūrti ānanda-nartana ||37||

Of the fixed number of Names one chants, a portion should be sung aloud.
All the senses will become joyful and one will begin to dance in ecstasy. (FN7)


(FN7) Bhaktivinoda Thakur talks about two kinds of chanting on the beads, silent meditation (smaran) and loud chanting (kirtan). At this juncture, the Thakur is not advising lila smaran, but only remembering the Holy Name.

Gopal Bhatta quotes the following passage from the Nṛsiṁha-purāṇa in Hari-bhakti-vilāsa (17.154-158): “There are three kinds of japa sacrifice: spoken aloud (vācika), whispered (upāṁśu) and silent (mānasa). Each of these is superior to the preceding. Voiced or vācika japa is when one pronounces the mantra clearly, sometimes loudly, sometimes less so. Whispered japa comes when one moves the lips slightly and pronounces the sounds so that he alone can hear them. When one chants remembers each syllable and each word clearly in the mind, meditating on the meaning of each, that is called mānasa-japa.” He goes on to quote Yajïavalkya-smṛti, which states, “Whispered, the mantra is a thousand times better than speaking it aloud, while repeating it mentally is a thousand times superior to whispering it.”

These instructions are important, but have been given specifically in relation to the diksha mantra and should be definitely followed when chanting it, especially if one wishes to perfect the mantra through puraścaraṇa. The scriptures give a different injunction when it comes to the Maha Mantra, however. Hari Das Thakur says in the Caitanya-bhāgavata (1.16.283)—

japato hari-nāmāni sthāne śata-guṇādhikaḥ
ātmānaṁ ca punāty uccair japan śrotṝn punāti ca
Someone who chants the Holy Names aloud is a hundred times better than one who performs silent japa, because the one who is chanting japa simply benefits himself, while the person who chants aloud not only does good for himself, but for all those who hear him as well.

Nonetheless, it is not advised to chant all one’s rounds aloud. There are advantages to the three different methods of chanting and one should cultivate them all. Bhaktivinoda Thakur has already mentioned (HNC 12.21) that one should isolate oneself in order to avoid distractions and improve concentration. The chanting one does most meditatively should be done seated for the best effects. One should use one of the simple meditative seating postures, such as svastikāsana or siddhāsana, rather than the tailor’s pose (sukhāsana) or padmāsana, if necessary placing a hard pillow under the coccyx for support to keep the back straight. When concentration fades, chant out loud to bring the mind back to the Holy Name. If you get tired sitting, then you may chant while walking, but you should try to practice chanting in a sitting position for as much of your daily vow as possible.



nāma nava-vidha aṅga karaya āśraya |
tathāpi kīrtana smṛti sarva-śreṣṭha haya ||38||

Even though chanting the Holy Name
plays a part in all the nine kinds of bhakti,
directly chanting and remembering the Holy Name
are the best practices of all. (FN8)


(FN8) The Holy Name is the supreme devotional activity. All other devotional activities ultimately take refuge in the Holy Name. Therefore, calling out to the Lord in His holy name is the most direct path of spiritual life and the topmost act of devotion.



According to one’s individual characteristics, one follows either the path of Deity worship or the path of hearing and chanting


arcana-mārgete gāḍhatara ruci yāṅra |
śravaṇa-kīrtana-siddhi tāhāte tāṅhāra ||39||
nāme aikāntikī rati ha-ibe yāṅhāra |
śravaṇa-kīrtana-smṛti kevala tāṅhāra ||40||

Those who have a decided preference for the path of Deity worship
will attain the same perfection as from hearing and chanting.
One who has single-minded affection for the Holy Name,
only engages in hearing, chanting and remembering.(FN9)


(FN9) See Bhajana-rahasya 2.43, HBV 20.382-384. The path of deity worship is the religious system recommended for the Dvapara Age. Though according to Rupa Goswami it is still one of the five primary devotional activities that has a great power to awaken love for Krishna, it is still secondary to the chanting of the Holy Name in this age of Kali. Nevertheless, householders in particular are advised to install deities in the home and make them the center of the household and worship them according to their means.



The progression from hearing to chanting



to remembering the Holy Name


sevā nati dāsya sakhya ātma-nivedana |
sahaje nāmera saṅge haya pravartana ||41||

Service, obeisances, service attitude, friendship and self-surrender
all proceed naturally out of the chanting of the Holy Name.


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